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Dojo Dictionary

More so than in English, words in japanese can have more than one meaning and often there are several words with the same or very similar meanings. Sometimes the meaning of a word can only be determined by it’s context within a sentence or even how it is used during the course of a conversation. The words or phrases detailed here relate to common use in japanese martial arts dojo where aikido is taught, with a specific reference of terms used in the tomiki/shodokan aikido ryūha.

dublin aikido japanese dojo dictionary

(Pronunciations in native Japanese courtesy of Google Translate) 

Dojo (Martial Arts) Japanese


ai: (eye): same.
aigamai: (eye-gam-eye) same posture   (gyakugamai - opposite posture)
aigamae-ate:  strike from same posture (randori-no-kata #2)
aigamai-katate-dori:
grasping wrist with same hand (techniques)
ai-hanmi: same stance
aikido:
  the way of harmony of lifeforce
aikidoka: (eye-key-doh-kah) one who practices Aikido
arigato:  Thank you
arigato gozaimasu:  Thank You (more polite version)
         domo arigato:  Thanks a lot
         domo arigatou gozaimasu:  Thank you very much
         domo: Thanks

arigatou gozaimashita: This is a past tense version of ありがとうございます Arigatou gozaimasu. This expression is used when you give thanks for something that has been done for you, for example, you can say it to your teacher at the end of a lesson, or to your host when you leave a house party.

ashi : (ashh-hee) Foot, feet or legs
ate: hit, strike
atemi:
(ah-teh-me)  striking 
atemi waza: (ah-teh-me-waz-ah) striking techniques.
In striking martial arts such as karate "atemi waza" are techniques to strike the vital points. However in Tomiki Aikido "atemi waza" are techniques to throw an opponent by pushing (rather than striking hard) the point of contact, in the opponents weak direction when their balance is broken, (in order to make them safe to use in competition), and using the entire body to effect the "atemi". 

aka: 
(a-ka) Red
 
ayumi-ashi: normal walking foot movement 
    - hiki-ashi: move with both feet, do not drag trailing foot
    - suri-ashi: Sliding feet. keep contact with mat when moving feet
    - mawashi-ashi: turning one foot around the other
    - shumoko-ashi: one foot in front at right angle to back foot


bokken: (木剣): wooden sword. In Japan the term bokutō (木刀) is preffered. A suburitō (素振り刀) is a heavier wooden sword for cutting/swinging practice.


chudan: (chew-dan) Middle area


dachi: (da-chee) Stance
dai ichi: (die-eech) The first
dai ni: (die-knee) The second
dai san: (die-san) The third
dai yon: (die-yawn) The fourth
dai go: (die-go) The fifth
dai roku
: (die-row-coo) The sixth
datsu-ryoku: Relaxing tension in arms or othe parts of body (kincho: tension)
do:  (doh) Way or path.

dogi (doh-gee)/ doi: Also called “gi” . The uniform worn during the practice of a martial art. 
dojo: (doh-joe) Training hall. Literally – “The place of the way”.
dokko: fatal atemi point at base of ear
dori: grab, take
dosa: (doh-sa) exercise


fuku-shidoin: First instructors rank (2nd or 3rd Dan)


gaeshi: (guy-she) reverse.  kaeshi: outside
gamae/kamae: posture
gasho: put your hands together with your tegatana
gō-no-sen: (go-no-cen) 後の先 To respond to an attack after it is initiated.
gedan
: (gay-dan) Low or lower area
gedan-ate: strike from lower level (randori-no-kata #4)
gyaku: opposite, reverse
gyaku-dori: (guy-a-cue-door-e) cross grab.
gyaku-gamae: (guy-a-cue-gam-eye) opposite posture.  (aigamai - same posture)
gyaku-gamae-ate: opposite posture strike (randori-no-kata #3)
gyaku-hanmi: opposite stance 
gyaku-gamae katate-dori: opposite posture wrist grab

gyakute-dori: right hand up wrist grasp. when you grasp your opponents wrist if your thumb and index finger are closer to your opponents elbow than your little finger, this is "junte dori". if your little finger is closer it is "gyakute-dori".


hai:  Yes.
hajime :  Begin.
hakama: (hack-ama): divided skirt worn over the gi
hanmi: (han-me) posture with one foot froward of the other
hanmi handachi: defender kneeling, attacker standing
hauchi: (how-che) Hitting the mat with both hands when taking ukemi.
hidari: (hee-dah-ree) left
hineri: (hin-ay-ree) Inside turn, twist
hiza: (he-za) knee.
hiji: (he-jee): elbow.  empi: (em-pee) :elbow
hiji-tori/hiji-dori: grab the elbow or elbows. elbow grab.
hiji-waza: elbow techniques
hiki: pull
hiki-otoshi: pull-down, pulling drop (randori-no-kata #17)
hiki-taoshi 引倒し  pulling topple (randori-no-kata #8)
hiki-ashi: move with both feet (do not drag one foot behind)


iie: (e-ay): No
ido ryoku: power of movement, momentum
Ippon: a score (4 points, in tomiki aikido randori competition) 
irimi
: (er-e-me): move forward, enter
ikkyo: (ick-e-yow) the first principle joint technique
    - (the aikikai term for the elbow joint technique similar to oshi taoshi: pushing topple, rnk #6)
    


jo: (joe): wooden staff     (yari: short spear)
jodan : 
(joe-dan) Upper area.
jigotai: strongly resisting posture
junte-dori: right hand up wrist grasp. when you grasp your opponents wrist if you thumb and index finger are closer to your opponents elbow than your little finger, this is "junte dori". if your little finger is closer it is "gyakute-dori".
jyu: (jee-you) Free-style 
jyu-waza: free-style techniques/practice


kaeshi: (kay-she) Outside turn.  gaeshi: Reverse
kaeshi-waza: Counter techniques
kamae: (caam-eye) basic postire, stance
kaiten: (kie-ten) Revolve, rotate
kaiten-nage: rotary throw
kake: to apply technique
kasumi: fatal atemi point on side of head (temple)
kata: (kah-tah) Form or formal exercise. (also means shoulder)
kata-dori: shoulder grab
katate: one handed
katate-dori:  same hand grab :  katate-tori
katate-kosa-tori:  cross hand grab
katana: long sword
keiko: training, practice session
kekomi: thrusting
ken: Japanese sword
ki: (key) spirit, vital force
kiai: (kee-ah-ee) A sharp sound made at the moment of kime to aid in the tensing of body muscles and focusing of the mind for a more effective technique.
kime: (KEE-meh) Focus. The pinpoint concentration of mind and body to achieve maximum effectiveness.
kincho: tension
kihon:
 (KEE-hon) Basic or standard.
kihon-no-keiko: (KEE-hon-noh-keh-ee-koh) Practice in basic techniques.
kiza: (Key-zaa)  this is an alternative sitting position identical to seiza except that the toes are tucked in underneath you when you sit. 
kiotsuke: (kee-oht-soo-kay) Come to attention, stand up straight!
kiri kaeshi:  knife hand atemi to temple
kiritsu: (keer-itzu) 起立  stand up (always raising the right leg first)
kikkou: a state where oposing forces are balanced
kobanwa: Good evening
kobudō: (koh-boo-doh) 古武道, ancient martial arts of Japan.
kogeki: (koh-geh-kee) To attack.
kohai: (KOH-hah-ee): A junior member of the dojo.

koho-ukemi:  backward break-fall, backward roll
konichiwa: Good afternoon
kokyu
: (koh-queue): breath; breathing; timing, breath power
koryū: (koh-roo) 古流,  old style and

koshi: hips, waist  goshi 
koshi-nage: Hip throw
kotai: (coat-eye): change around, swap over
kote: (koh-te) wrist  
kote-hineri: (koh-te-hin-ery) inside wrist twist (randori-no-kata #11)
kote-gaeshi: (koh-te-gay-she) outside wrist twist, wrist reversal (randori-no-kata #12)
kote-waza: wrist techniques
kubi: (coo-bee): neck   tekubi : wrist (neck of the hand)
kumi-jo: partner practice with jo
kumi-tachi: partner practice with ken/bokuto
kuzushi: breaking balance
kyu: dojo rank, class, ( mudansha: undrgraduate)
kyusho: vital points
kyogi: competition
    - randori-kyogi: competition to practice aikiod technique (tanto-kyogi, toshu kyogi)
    - embu-kyogi: competiton with pre arranged forms


mae: (my) front
ma-ai: 
(mah-eye) Distancing. The distance between two opponents.
mae-ni: (mah-eh-nee) Move forward.
mae-geri:  front kick

mae-otoshi: front drop (randori-no-kata #15)
mae ukemi: front breakfall
mawashi-geri:  turning kick, roundhouse kick
matte: (maat-tay) Wait , stop
mawatte: (mah-waht-teh) Turn around, turn 180
men: face, head
men-uchi: strike to the face,head
menjo: (men-joe): Certificate
metsuke: (met-skay) Eye focussing, eye contact. enzan no metsuke: look at the far mountain
mi: body (used in atemi, ukemi)
migi: (mee-gee) right
mochi:  grab; hold    (dogi-mochi: grabing training uniform)
mokuso:  meditation
mugamae (moo-gam-aye): natural posture  also shizentai
mudansha:
one without dan, dojo undergraduate, a kyu grade


nage: (na-gay): thrower, initiator
nihon: two points
nikyo: (nick-e-yow) the second principle (joint technique)


obi: (oh-bee) Belt.
omote: moving in front
onegai shimasu: (oh-na-guy-shim-mass) お願いします please (teach me)
osae: holding
oshi: push
oshi-taoshi: pushing topple  (randori-no-kata, technique #6)
otagai ni: (oh-tah-gah-ee nee) toward each other
otagai ni rei:  お互いに礼 bow toward each other (teacher and students)
otoshi: falling down
otoshi-waza: "floating" techniques (last three randori-no-kata techniques) also know as uki-waza
oyo-waza: Variations on basic techniques
oyasumi nasai: Good night


randori: multiple attack, competition. Originally a Judo term

rei:  Bow. The three bows performed at the beginning and end of each class are:
      Shomen ni rei:  Bow to the front
      Sensei ni rei: Bow to the teacher
      Otagai ni rei : Bow to each other
reigi: Etiquette
riai: principle of the technique
ryoku: power
ryote: (re-otay) both hands
ryote-mochi:  (re-otay-mo-chee) grab with two hands.
ryote-tori: (re-otay-toree) grab both hands by both hands. ryote-dori
ryū:
style, system, school
ryūha:
school, school of thought 


saya: left and right

sabaki: avoiding
seichu-sen: the vertical centre-line of the human body
seiretsu:
(Say-reht-soo) Lineup in an orderly fashion.
seiza: (Say-zaa) The Japanese formal method of sitting on the floor with the knees bent and the legs under the body.
sen-no-sen: (cen-no-cen) 先の先 To anticipate an attack and to take the initiative. (See go-no-sen and sen-sen-no-sen).
sen-sen-no-sen(cen-cen-no-cen) 先先の先 To anticipate and take the initiative against sen-no-sen. (See sen-no-sen and go-no-sen).

senpai:  (Sem-pai) A senior person in a school or organization. Can also be a formal title given to a senior student (1st Dan to 3rd Dan).   (which is the correct English spelling / pronunciation -  Senpai or Sempai?)

sensei: (cen-say) Teacher. The term may be applied to anyone who guides or instructs another, such as a doctor or lawyer. Literally, sensei means “one who has gone before”. Sensei is also a formal title given generally to 3rd Dan and above black belts.

sensei ni rei:
(cen-say-nee-ray) 先生に礼 – bow to your sensei (teacher), saying:
onegaishimasu – お願いします – please, at the start; and
arigato gozaimasu – ありがとうございます – thank you very much, at the end

shiai: (she-eye) competitive match
shido: (she-doe) point to opponent, in randori
shiho:
(she-hoe) four directions
shiho-nage: four direction throw. 
   - also known as tenkai-kote-gaeshi: rotating wrist reversal (randori-no-kata #14)

shikko:
(she-kow) knee walking
shiro:
(she-row): White
shidoin: (she-dow-in) Certified instructor (4th or 5th Dan)
shihan: (she-han) master, an instructor with 7th degree black belt rank or higher.
shinsa: (shin-za) examination.
shizentai (shiz-ent-tie): natural posture also mugamae
shodan
: "beginner" dan, holder of first dan
shomen:  Front.
   - the front wall where pictures of the founders are hung.
   - also front or top of head
shomen ni rei: bow to the front (of the hall)
shomen ni taishi: (show-men nee ta(i)-sh(e)) face the front
shomen-uchi: (show-men-oo-chee) strike to the top of head or forehead.
shomen-ate: front atemi, strike from the front. (randori-no-kata #1)
shotei: the lower part of the palm, near the wrist
shotei-awase: pushing practise, focus of power
soto:(so-toe) Outside or exterior
sokuho:(soo-coo-hoe) side.  sokuho ukemi: side breakfall
sumimasen: (sue-me-mass-cen): Excuse me, or very polite Thank you
sumi: corner
sumi-otoshi: (sue-me-ooh-tosh-e) corner drop (randori-no-kata #16)
suri-ashi: (sue-ry-ash-i) sliding foot
suwaru: (sue-war-ooh) sit down
suwari-waza: (sue-war-ee) sitting techniques, kneeling techniques
suji-kime/suji-gime: pushing a specific part of the opponents fore arm between the two bones with the base of your index finger.


tachi: japanese sword
tachi-dori: sword disarming
tachi-rei: (taa-chee reh-ee) Standing bow.taijutsu: (tie-jut-sue) body arts, aikido techniques
tai: body
tai-no-henko: basic blensing practice (tenkan practice)
tai-sabaki:
(tie-sue-bach-ee) Body movement/shifting/avoiding.
taiso: (toy-sew): exercise.
taoshi: bringing down
tantō: (短刀) short knife.
tanden: "one point", point just below navel, hara
tatami: (畳): training mat , or traditional straw matting.
te: hand
tegatana:
 sword hand
tekubi: (tay-coo-be): wrist (neck of the hand).  kubi:neck
tekubi-tori/tekubi-dori: wrist techniques
tekubi-waza: wrist techniques. 
tenkai: truning under an opponents arm
tenkai-kote-hineri:  rotating wrist twist (randori-no-kata #13)
tenkai-kote-gaeshi: rotating wrist reversal (randori-no-kata #14)
    - also known as shiho-nage : four way throw
     
                                      

tentai: to rotate
tenkan: (ten-can) turn; step backward.

tobi: jump
toitsu: (toe-ite-sue) coordination; unification.
toitsu-ryoku: A force generated by concentrating power to a single point
tori:  Attacker.
toshu: Defender (in tanto randori)

tsuki: (ski) strike forward
tsuyoku: (t’soo-yoh-koo) Execute strong, fast techniques.


uchi: (ooh-che): strike 
ude: arm
ude-gaeshi:  arm reversal (randori-no-kata #7)
ude-hineri / ude-garame  腕 捻り  /   rm twist / arm locked up  (randori-no-kata #9)
uke: Receiver of technique. The person who gives an attack and receive the technique
ukemi:  The art of receiving a technique and safe falling. Breakfalls.
uki-waza:  "air-throw" techniques of randori-no-kata (mae-otoshi, sumi-otoshi, hiki-otoshi) also know as otoshi-waza
undo: (un-doeexercise; motion.
unsoku: (un-sock-ue) foot work for keeping balance.
ura: (ooh-ra) moving behind
ushiro
: (oo-shee-roh): back, behind, rear
ushiro-ate: strike from behind (randori-no-kata #5)
ushiro-ni: (oo-shee-roh-nee) Move backward.
ushiro-dori: bear hug from behind
ushiro-eri-dori: collar grab from behind
ushiro-ryote-dori: both wrists grabbed from behind
ushiro-tyo-kata-dori: both shoulders grabbed from behind
ushiro-kube-shime: choking with one hand around the nexk from rear, usually while holding one wrist with free hand
uto: fatal atemi point between eyebrows


waza: (wah-zah): 'way', 'method', 'technique', or 'skill'.  In budo or sumo, an action / movement with a fixed form initiated with a partner.
wakarimasen: (wah-car-ee-mah-sin) I do not understand
wakarimasu: (wah-car-ee-mas) I understand
wakarimasu ka ?: (wah-car-ee-mas kah) do you understand ?
waki: side, upper arm
waki-gatame  脇固め : fixing the side, forearm (randori-no-kata #10)


yame:  Stop.
yari: short spear  
yasume:
 (yah-soo-meh) Relax.
yoi:  Be ready.
yoko: (yoo-koo) Side  (yoko ukemo - side breakfall)
yokomen-uchi: Strike to the side of the head
yukkuri: (yoo-koo-ree) Slowly, or “at ease”.
yudansha: holders of dan grade


zanshin:  (zan-shen) “The remaining mind”. Maintaining complete awareness and alertness at all times.
zazen: sitting/kneeling meditation
zenpo-ukemi : (zen-poe-ooh-chem-ee) forward breakfall.
zenpo-kaiten-ukemi : forward rolling breakfall.

 

Counting in Japanese 

rei: (ray) zero
ichi:(eech) one
ni: (nee) two
san: (san) three
shi / yon:(she / yawn) four
go: (go) five
roku: (roke) six
shichi / nana : (seech /nanna) seven
hachi: (hach) eight
ku: (koo) nine
ju: (jew) ten

ju ichi: (jew-eech) eleven

ni ju: (nee-jew) twenty
san ju: (san jew) thirty
shi ju: (she jew) forty
go ju: (go jew) fifty


 

...any corrections or additions gladly received to mailbox@tomikiaikido.ie  
DUBLIN TOMIKI AIKIDO

Kihon - (基本, きほん)

Basics - Fundamentals

Senpai or Sempai?

Which is correct?

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